write a grant proposal on the hypothesis below using the 3 references given.

Your paper should have no more than 1050 (minimum of 1000) words and will be divided into an Introduction, Methods, and Discussion.

You will be graded on your choice of question, methods, and the overall presentation of your study and data. You will be graded severely on your writing. You must have correct spelling, good grammar and style. Remember, one paragraph, one idea. What do I mean by “style”? Read a style guide. There are many short, good ones out there. No quotations allowed. References must be presented in the format found in Animal Behaviour. Papers with improper referencing formats will be marked down one letter grade.


Does predation risk costs affect foraging of prey animals?

My hypothesis is that avoidance behavior will occur causing a decrease in foraging when white tail deer perceive the presence of wolves.

I will test this prediction utilizing food plots and cameras to observe white tailed deer and their avoidance to foraging when urine of wolves is present.


Odocoileus virginianus

White tail deer


Osada, K., Miyazono, S., & Kashiwayanagi, M. (1AD, January 1). The scent of wolves: Pyrazine analogs induce avoidance and vigilance behaviors in prey. Frontiers. Retrieved November 7, 2021, from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2015.00363/ full.Â

Osada, K., Miyazono, S., & Kashiwayanagi, M. (2014, August 14). Pyrazine analogs are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and fear-related behaviors in deer. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience. Retrieved November 7, 2021, from https:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4132518/.Â

The ecological relationship of gray wolves and white-tailed deer in Minnesota: International Wolf Center. International Wolf Center | Teaching the World about Wolves. (2019, October 16). Retrieved November 10, 2021, from https://wolf.org/the-ecological-relationship-of-gray-wolves-and-white-tailed-deer-in-minnesota/.Â

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