ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS, I have attached screenshots of the data sets from the textbook for needed questions

This week, you will learn about application of hypothesis testing and probability theory to the testing of specific questions regarding relationships between variables. We will then go on to discuss probability, represented by our discussion of the normal curve and the basic principles underlying probability.

Hypothesis tests are procedures for making rational decisions about the reality of effects. In hypothesis testing one wishes to show real effects of an experiment. By showing that the experimental results were unlikely, given that there were no effects, one may decide that the effects are, in fact, real. The hypothesis that there were no effects is called the NULL HYPOTHESIS. The symbol H0 is used to abbreviate the Null Hypothesis in statistics. Note that, unlike geometry, we cannot prove the effects are real, rather we may decide the effects are real.

Probability is a theory of uncertainty. Probability theory is a rational means of dealing with an uncertain world. Probabilities are numbers associated with events that range from zero to one (0-1). A probability of zero means that the event is impossible. For example, if I were to flip a coin, the probability of a leg is zero, because a coin may have a head or tail, but not a leg. Given a probability of one, however, the event is certain. For example, if I flip a coin the probability of heads, tails, or an edge is one, because the coin must take one of these possibilities.

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